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This session aims to raise awareness of the humanitarian consequences of urban warfare, including of the use of Explosive Weapons in Populated Areas (EWIPA). It will discuss how to address the complex protection challenges of civilians and civilian infrastructure. In this context, it will debate the best practices to protect civilians and key infrastructure, both through preparedness and response. The session will also present concrete steps that need to be taken by various actors (states, donors, international organizations, civil society) in order to use the momentum created by the Political Declaration on EWiPA in November 2022 and contribute to its meaningful implementation, with regards to several aspects such as collecting data on harm, victims’ assistance, addressing the reverberating effects and protecting civilians through adapted military practices.